Naval Agreement 1922

Although the Five Arms Treaty controlled the tonnage of each navy`s warships, certain categories of ships remained whole. As a result, after 1922, a new race to build Crusader ships emerged, which led the five nations to return to the negotiating table in 1927 and 1930 to close the remaining loopholes in the treaty. The Great Adventure at Washington: The story of the conference / M. Sullivan 1922. 290 pp. In addition to multilateral agreements, the conference participants concluded several bilateral agreements. Japan and China signed a bilateral agreement, the Treaty of Shangtung (Shandong), which returned China`s control of the province and its railways. Japan had taken control of the area from the Germans during World War I and retained control of it in the years that followed. The combination of the Shangtung Treaty and the Nine Powers Treaty should assure China that its territory would no longer be threatened by Japanese expansion. In addition, Japan agreed to withdraw its troops from Siberia and the United States and Japan formally agreed to equal access to cable and radio facilities on the Japanese-controlled island of Yap. Article XIX of the treaty also prohibited the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States from building new fortifications or naval bases in the Pacific Ocean. Existing fortifications in Singapore, the Philippines and Hawaii could be preserved. This was an important victory for Japan, as newly established British or American bases would be a serious problem for the Japanese in the event of a future war.

This provision of the treaty essentially guaranteed that Japan would be the dominant power in the Western Pacific and was essential for Japan to accept the borders for the construction of large Polish goods. [17] The last multilateral agreement reached at the Washington Naval Conference, the Nine Powers Treaty, marked the internationalization of the United States` open door policy in China. The treaty promised that each of the signatories – the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and China – would respect China`s territorial integrity. The treaty recognized Japanese rule in Manchuria, but also reaffirmed the importance of equal opportunity for all nations doing business in the country. For its part, China has agreed not to discriminate against a country that wants to do business there. Like the four-power treaty, this china treaty required further consultations between signatories in the event of a violation. As a result, it did not have a method of application to ensure that all powers complied with its conditions. Subsequent conferences on naval arms limitation sought additional restrictions on war shipbuilding. The terms of the Washington Treaty were modified by the London Navy Treaty of 1930 and the Second London Treaty of 1936. In the mid-1930s, Japan and Italy renounced treaties, while Germany renounced the Treaty of Versailles, which had limited its navy. The limitation of naval weapons became increasingly difficult for the other signatories.

. . .