“articles of association” or “instrument of incorporation”: when a new class of shares is created or if the number of approved shares is increased, the instrument of incorporation of the enterprise must be amended to provide for such an amendment. The Charter is a publicly available document that defines, among other things, the rights, preferences and privileges associated with preferred shares. For example, a charter may contain anti-dilution provisions (protecting investors from future issuance of shares at a lower price per share than they purchased) and preferred shareholders will often expect “collateral” to be included. Guarantees require a majority of preferred shareholders to enable the company to implement certain defined measures, such as the approval/issuance of additional shares or the amendment of the articles of association or articles of association. . . .