For the CRNP with less than two years (4000 hours) of clinical experience since the initial certification or in the office of the cooperating physician, the physician must be present at least ten percent (10%) of the scheduled hours of the CRNP at an approved practice location. For the CRNP with two years (4000 hours) of clinical experience, the physician must meet at least quarterly and visit remote sites at least twice a year. Every nurse (NP) must enter into a written cooperation agreement with a physician to practice. The cooperation agreements include provisions that include the following addresses: Melissa DeCapua is a certified psychiatric nurse who graduated from Vanderbilt University. She has a background in child and adolescent psychiatry as well as psychosomatic medicine. The ability of nurses to work to the full extent of their education and training is an issue affecting NPs at the national level. As documented in recent interviews with Michigan nurses and researchers, the battle for Full Practice Authority (FFPA) is critical to meeting the growing demand for skilled providers (especially in rural areas) and keeping costs low through safe and effective health services. While the VA, AARP, FTC, Institute of Medicine, Bipartisan Policy Center, and many others are advocating for granting FPA to NPs, many physician organizations are still opposed to these efforts. .